cPanel MySQL optimization
MySQL optimization plays a major role in cPanel server management.
Here are the four major scenarios where optimization proves indispensable for your servers.
1. Database size
Over time, the databases grow in size. More and more records get added and this can lead to huge chunks of data being handled during MySQL processes.
Huge databases, if not truncated or optimized, can clog server memory to a large extent. This leads to degraded server performance and slow websites.
2. Resource shortage
Increasing memory and CPU help improve server performance, but resource addition always has its limits. For cost-efficiency, we need to ensure the maximum utilization of the available server specs.
If the services in the server are not configured for optimal resource usage, or if the server resources are not ideally distributed, a single service can hog all the resources, leading to a server crash.
3. Traffic spike
A peak sale period, a new product launch, website attacks, abusive users, anything can lead to a spike in the MySQL processes in the server. An issue with one website can affect the entire server.
Apart from that, resource-intensive processes such as backups and server updates can further add overhead to the I/O operations in the server, and further slow down the websites.
4. Slow queries
Each website has a unique personality. The data and queries can vary from one website to another. Many sites have custom code and query to fulfill their purpose.
But if these queries are not optimized properly, it can lead to unwanted and complex sort and join operations, causing MySQL service to overload the server.
cPanel MySQL optimization – How we do it!
1. Database optimization
Truncating unused records of huge DBs help to further improve MySQL server performance.
Database updates often leave “holes” in the tables. These can cause longer data fetch times and to overcome periodic defragmentation process is required.
2. Fine-tuning MySQL server
MySQL server comes with a set of parameters, that we modify in an iterative manner to achieve ideal performance. Some of these are:
a. max_connections – In multi-user servers, this setting is used to prevent a single user hogging the entire server. In heavily loaded shared servers, this limit can be as low as 10, and in dedicated servers, it can be as high as 250.
b. innodb_buffer_pool_size – In MySQL databases enabled with InnoDB, query results are stored in a memory area called “buffer pool” for fast access. We set this value anywhere between 50-70% of available RAM for MySQL.
c. key_buffer_size – This setting determines the cache size for MyISAM tables. This is set approximately 20% of the available memory of MySQL.
d. query_cache_size – This is enabled only for single website servers, and is set to 10MB or less, depending on how slow the queries are at present.
The parameter values for MySQL server varies from server to server, and are configured based on the available memory. These values are periodically tweaked to ensure ongoing performance.
3. 24/7 service monitoring
Traffic spikes, backups, attacks, anything can lead to a high server load. These issues can happen at any time of the day, and at unexpected hours. A monitoring system can tell something about the load spike to a great extent.
4. Fixing inefficient queries
With the help of custom logs that track slow and inefficient queries, we can detect the specific queries that cause high MySQL load, and take actions to fix them or fine-tune them.